To be mathematically proficient, a student must have:
• Conceptual understanding: comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations
• Procedural fluency: skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately
• Strategic competence: ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems
• Adaptive reasoning: capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification
•Productive disposition: habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy.