**To be mathematically proficient, a student must have:**

# • **Conceptual understanding:** comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations

# • Procedural fluency: skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately

# • Strategic competence: ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems

**• Adaptive reasoning:** capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification

**•Productive disposition:** habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy.